As the year closes, Mada Masr remembers the moments of 2013. Through these images, by photographer Virginie Nguyen, we remember 12 months of tumultuous political events in Egypt, in which violence and loss were rampant. We are reminded that photographs are critical, and powerful, historical documents.
January 25: Clashes erupt between protesters and police as Egyptians return to the streets to mark the second anniversary of the uprising that toppled President Hosni Mubarak.
June 21: A supporter of deposed President Mohamed Morsi holds a poster near the Rabea al-Adaweya Square, where pro-Muslim Brotherhood protesters camped for weeks, calling for Morsi’s reinstatement.
June 26: The Tamarod (Rebel) signature campaign demanding Morsi’s ouster goes viral.
June 28: A woman opposed to Morsi’s rule is one of millions of people who demonstrated across Egypt.
July 26: Massive pro-Morsi sit-in at Rabea al-Adaweya Mosque.
July 3: Anti-Morsi protesters celebrate the speech of Armed Forces Commander-in-Chief Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, in which he announced Morsi’s removal.
July 5: Military vehicles deploy near Tahrir Square to prevent clashes between Morsi’s supporters and their opponents.
July 28: “Third Square” demonstrators protest against both the military and the Muslim Brotherhood, as well as the old regime.
August 14: An injured protester in the Rabea al-Adaweya Mosque, turned into makeshift field hospital during the violent dispersal of the sit-in.
October 11: A woman carries a poster with the Rabea sign during a protest in Nasr City marking the 100th day since Morsi’s ouster.
October 21: Mourners hold funerals for their dead at the Virgin Mary Coptic church in Cairo after gunmen on a motorbike killed four people, including an eight-year-old girl.
December 27: Smoke billows from the entrance of Al-Azhar University as riot police surround the area during clashes with student supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood.